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Recent Original Publications

1.  Schallreuter KU, Moore J, Tobin DJ et al. (1999) alpha-MSH can control the essential cofactor       6-tetrahydrobiopterin in melanogenesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 885: 329-41

2.  Schallreuter KU (1999) A review of recent advances on the regulation of pigmentation in the human epidermis. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 45: 943-9

3.  Moore J, Wood JM, Schallreuter KU (1999) Evidence for specific complex formation between alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone and 6(R)-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin using near infrared Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. Biochemistry 38: 15317-24

4.  Schallreuter KU, Moore J, Wood JM et al. (1999) In vivo and in vitro evidence for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation in the epidermis of patients with vitiligo and its successful removal by a UVB-activated pseudocatalase. J Invest Dermatol Symp Proc 4: 91-6

5.  Beazley WD, Gaze D, Panske A, Panzig E, Schallreuter KU (1999) Serum selenium levels and blood glutathione peroxidase activities in vitiligo. Br J Dermatol 141: 301-3

6.  Schallreuter KU, Wood JM (1999) The importance of L-phenylalanine transport and its autocrine turnover to L-tyrosine for melanogenesis in human epidermal melanocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 262: 423-8

7.  Schallreuter KU (1999) Successful treatment of oxidative stress in vitiligo. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 12: 132-8

8.  Schallreuter KU (1999) Pseudocatalase treatment in xeroderma pigmentosum: a case report. Br J Dermatol 140: 1190-1

9.  Ancans J, Thody AJ, Wood JM, Beazley WD, Schallreuter KU (1999) Human epidermal proopiomelanocortin (POMC) cDNA variant is identical to mouse POMC cDNA. J Invest Dermatol 112: 516-7

10.  Schallreuter KU (2000) GTP-cyclohydrolase I and vitiligo. Clin Exp Dermatol 25: 655

11.  Behrens-Williams SC, Peters EM, Schallreuter KU (2000) In vivo delayed-type hypersensitivity in 109 patients with vitiligo. Int J Dermatol 39: 593-8

12.  Tobin DJ, Swanson NN, Pittelkow MR, Peters EM, Schallreuter KU (2000) Melanocytes are not absent in lesional skin of long duration vitiligo. J Pathol 191: 407-16

13.  Schallreuter KU, Wood JM (2000) Downregulation of tyrosinase activity in human melanocyte cell cultures by yohimbine. J Invest Dermatol 115: 130-1

14.  Peters EM, Tobin DJ, Seidah NG, Schallreuter KU (2000) Pro-opiomelanocortin-related peptides, prohormone convertases 1 and 2 and the regulatory peptide 7B2 are present in melanosomes of human melanocytes. J Invest Dermatol 114: 430-7

15.  Schallreuter KU, Wood JM (2001) Thioredoxin reductase - its role in epidermal redox status. J Photochem Photobiol B 64: 179-84

16.  Schallreuter KU, Moore J, Wood JM et al. (2001) Epidermal H2O2 accumulation alters tetrahydrobiopterin (6BH4) recycling in vitiligo: identification of a general mechanism in regulation of all 6BH4-dependent processes? J Invest Dermatol 116: 167-74

17.  Schallreuter KU, Moore J, Behrens-Williams S, Panske A, Harari M (2002) Rapid initiation of repigmentation in vitiligo with Dead Sea climatotherapy in combination with pseudocatalase (PC-KUS). Int J Dermatol 41: 482-7

18.  Schallreuter KU, Tobin DJ, Panske A (2002) Decreased photodamage and low incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer in 136 sun-exposed caucasian patients with vitiligo. Dermatology 204: 194-201

19.  Rokos H, Beazley WD, Schallreuter KU (2002) Oxidative stress in vitiligo: photo-oxidation of pterins produces H2O2 and pterin-6-carboxylic acid. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 292: 805-11

20.  Moore J, Wood JM, Schallreuter KU (2002) H2O2-mediated oxidation of tetrahydrobiopterin: Fourier transform Raman investigations provide mechanistic implications for the enzymatic utilization and recycling of this essential co-factor. J Raman Spectrosc 33: 610-617

21.  Schallreuter KU, Moore J, Behrens-Williams S et al. (2002) In vitro and in vivo identification of Pseudocatalase activity in Dead Sea water using Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy. J Raman Spectrosc 33: 586-592

22.  Marles LK, Peters EM, Tobin DJ, Hibberts NA, Schallreuter KU (2003) Tyrosine hydroxylase isoenzyme I is present in human melanosomes: a possible novel function in pigmentation. Exp Dermatol 12: 61-70

23.  Schallreuter KU, Behrens-Williams S, Khaliq TP et al. (2003) Increased epidermal functioning wild-type p53 expression in vitiligo. Exp Dermatol 12: 268-277

24.  Schallreuter KU, Kothari S, Hasse S et al. (2003) In situ and in vitro evidence for DCoH/HNF-1 alpha transcription of tyrosinase in human skin melanocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 301: 610-616

25.  Kauser S, Schallreuter KU, Thody AJ, Gummer C, Tobin DJ (2003) Regulation of Human Epidermal Melanocyte Biology By beta-Endorphin. J Invest Dermatol 120: 1073-1080

26.  Schallreuter KU (2003) Effectiveness of pseudocatalase formulations in vitiligo. Clin Exp Dermatol 28: 1-2

27.  Schallreuter KU, Kothari S, Elwary S, Rokos H, Hasse S, Panske A (2003) Molecular evidence that halo in Sutton's naevus is not vitiligo. Arch Dermatol Res 295: 223-228

28.  Rokos H, Moore J, Hasse S, Gillbro JM, Wood JM, Schallreuter KU (2004) In vivo Fluorescence Excitation Spectroscopy and in vivo FT-Raman Spectroscopy in human skin: Evidence of H2O2 oxidation of epidermal albumin in patients with vitiligo. J Raman Spectrosc 35: 125-130

29.  Schallreuter KU, Elwary SM, Gibbons NC, Rokos H, Wood JM (2004) Activation/deactivation of acetylcholinesterase by H2O2: more evidence for oxidative stress in vitiligo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 315: 502-508

30.  Hasse S, Gibbons NC, Rokos H, Marles LK, Schallreuter KU (2004) Perturbed 6-tetrahydrobiopterin recycling via decreased dihydropteridine reductase in vitiligo: more evidence for H2O2 stress. J Invest Dermatol 122: 307-313

31.  Elwary SM, Hasse S, Schallreuter KU (2004) m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAchR) subtype is present in human epidermal keratinocytes in situ and in vivo. J Invest Dermatol 123: 1206-7

32.  Wood JM, Chavan B, Hafeez I, Schallreuter KU (2004) Regulation of tyrosinase by tetrahydropteridines and H2O2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 325: 1412-7

33.  Kurzen H, Schallreuter KU (2004) Novel aspects in cutaneous biology of acetylcholine synthesis and acetylcholine receptors. Exp Dermatol 13 Suppl 4: 27-30

34.  Schallreuter KU, Wazir U, Kothari S, Gibbons NC, Moore J, Wood JM (2004) Human phenylalanine hydroxylase is activated by H2O2: a novel mechanism for increasing the L-tyrosine supply for melanogenesis in melanocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 322: 88-92

35.  Gillbro JM, Marles LK, Hibberts NA, Schallreuter KU (2004) Autocrine catecholamine biosynthesis and the beta-adrenoceptor signal promote pigmentation in human epidermal melanocytes. J Invest Dermatol 123: 346-53

36.  Kauser S, Thody AJ, Schallreuter KU, Gummer CL, Tobin DJ (2004) beta-Endorphin as a regulator of human hair follicle melanocyte biology. J Invest Dermatol 123: 184-95

37.  Schallreuter KU. Basic Research: An Update. In: Lotti T, Hercogova J, eds. Vitiligo. Problems and Solutions. New York: Marcel Decker, 2004: 65-78.

38.  Kauser S, Thody AJ, Schallreuter KU, Gummer CL, Tobin DJ (2005) A fully functional proopiomelanocortin/melanocortin-1 receptor system regulates the differentiation of human scalp hair follicle melanocytes. Endocrinology 146: 532-43

39.  Hasse S, Kothari S, Rokos H, Kauser S, Schürer NY, Schallreuter KU (2005) In vivo and in vitro evidence for autocrine DCoH/HNF-1alpha transcription of albumin in the human epidermis. Exp Dermatol 14: 182-7

40.  Schallreuter KU, Elwary S, Gibbons N, Rokos H, Wood JM (2005) Human epidermal acetylcholinesterase (AchE) is regulated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Exp Dermatol 14: 155

41.  Slominski A, Wortsman J, Plonka PM, Schallreuter KU, Paus R, Tobin DJ (2005) Hair follicle pigmentation. J Invest Dermatol 124: 13-21

42.  Schallreuter KU. Vitiligo. In: Hertl M, ed. Autoimmune Diseases of the Skin. Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Management. 2nd ed. Wien: Springer, 2005: 367-384.

43.  Wood JM, Chavan B, Hafeez I, Schallreuter KU (2005) Regulation of tyrosinase by tetrahydropteridines-What is real? A critical reanalysis of H. Wojtasek's view. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 331: 891-3

44.  Schallreuter KU, Chavan B, Rokos H, Hibberts N, Panske A, Wood JM (2005) Decreased phenylalanine uptake and turnover in patients with vitiligo. Mol Genet Metab 86 Suppl 1: S27-33

45.  Spencer JD, Chavan B, Marles LK, Kauser S, Rokos H, Schallreuter KU (2005) A novel mechanism in control of human pigmentation by {beta}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and 7-tetrahydrobiopterin. J Endocrinol 187: 293-302

46.  Schallreuter KU (2005) Oxidative stress in the human epidermis. G Ital Dermatol Venereol 140: 505-14

47.  Wood JM, Schallreuter KU (2006) UVA-irradiated pheomelanin alters the structure of catalase and decreases its activity in human skin. J Invest Dermatol 126: 13-4

48.  Schallreuter KU, Rübsam K, Chavan B et al. (2006) Functioning methionine sulfoxide reductases A and B are present in human epidermal melanocytes in the cytosol and in the nucleus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 342: 145-52

49.  Schallreuter KU (2006) Functioning methionine-S-sulfoxide reductases A and B are present in human skin. J Invest Dermatol 126: 947-9

50.  Schallreuter KU, Chiuchiarelli G, Cemeli E et al. (2006) Estrogens can contribute to hydrogen peroxide generation and quinone-mediated DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with vitiligo. J Invest Dermatol 126: 1036-42

51.  Schallreuter KU, Rokos H (2006) Turmeric (curcumin): a widely used curry ingredient, can contribute to oxidative stress in Asian patients with acute vitiligo. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 72: 57-9

52.  Hoogduijn MJ, Hitchcock IS, Smit NP, Gillbro JM, Schallreuter KU, Genever PG (2006) Glutamate receptors on human melanocytes regulate the expression of MiTF. Pigment Cell Res 19: 58-67

53.  Elwary SM, Chavan B, Schallreuter KU (2006) The vesicular acetylcholine transporter is present in melanocytes and keratinocytes in the human epidermis. J Invest Dermatol 126: 1879-84

54.  Wood JM, Gibbons NC, Schallreuter KU (2006) Melanocortins in human melanocytes. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 52: 75-8

55.  Schallreuter KU, Gibbons NCJ, Zothner C, Elwary SM, Rokos H, Wood JM (2006) Butyrylcholinesterase is present in the human epidermis and is regulated by H2O2: More evidence for oxidative stress in vitiligo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 349: 931-8

56.  Pey AL, Martinez A, Charubala R et al. (2006) Specific interaction of the diastereomers 7(R)- and 7(S)-tetrahydrobiopterin with phenylalanine hydroxylase: implications for understanding primapterinuria and vitiligo. Faseb J 20: 2130-2

57.  Chavan B, Gillbro JM, Rokos H, Schallreuter KU (2006) GTP cyclohydrolase feedback regulatory protein controls cofactor 6-tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis in the cytosol and in the nucleus of epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes. J Invest Dermatol 126: 2481-9

58.  Schallreuter KU, Gibbons NCJ, Rokos H, Rübsam K, Wood JM (2006) Hydrogen peroxide mediated oxidation severely compromises the methionine sulfoxide A / thioredoxin reductase antioxidant defence system. J Invest Dermatol 126 Suppl 3: Abstract 77

59.  Gibbons NCJ, Wood JM, Rokos H, Schallreuter KU (2006) Computer simulation of native epidermal enzyme structures in the presence and absence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2):  Potential and pitfalls. J Invest Dermatol 126: 2576-2582

60.  Gillbro JM, Gibbons NCJ, Chavan B, Pittelkow MP, Wood JM, Schallreuter KU (2007) Regulation of the b2-adrenergic receptor by tetrahydrobiopterin (6BH4). In: Peters GJ, Jansen G, eds. Chemistry and Biology of Pteridines and Folates Heilbronn: SPS Verlagsgesellschaft, 408-422.

61.  Spencer JD, Chavan B, Marles LK, Rokos H, Schallreuter KU (2007) Identification of a physiological role for 7BH4 in human melanogenesis. In: Peters GJ, Jansen G, eds. Chemistry and Biology of Pteridines and Folates.  Heilbronn: SPS Verlagsgesellschaft, 397-407.

62.  Schallreuter KU, Gibbons NC, Elwary SM, Parkin SM, Wood JM (2007) Calcium-activated butyrylcholinesterase in human skin protects acetylcholinesterase against suicide inhibition by neurotoxic organophosphates. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 355: 1069-74

63.  Spencer JD, Gibbons NCJ, Rokos H, Peters EMJ, Wood JM, Schallreuter KU (2007) Oxidative stress via hydrogen peroxide affects proopiomelanocortin-peptides directly in the epidermis of patients with vitiligo. J Invest Dermatol 127: 411-20

64.  Schallreuter KU, Elwary S (2007) Hydrogen peroxide regulates the cholinergic signal in a concentration dependent manner. Life Sci 80: 2221-6

65.  Schallreuter KU, Rokos H (2007) From the bench to the bedside: proton pump inhibitors can worsen vitiligo. Br J Dermatol 156: 1371-3

66.  Schallreuter KU (2007) Advances in melanocyte basic science research. Dermatol Clin 25: 283-91

67.  Schallreuter KU, Gibbons NC, Zothner C, Abou Elloof MM, Wood JM (2007) Hydrogen peroxide-mediated oxidative stress disrupts calcium binding on calmodulin: more evidence for oxidative stress in vitiligo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 360: 70-5

68.  Schallreuter KU, Krüger C, Rokos H, Hasse S, Zothner C, Panske A (2007) Basic research confirms coexistence of acquired Blaschkolinear Vitiligo and acrofacial Vitiligo. Arch Dermatol Res 299: 225-30

69.  Schallreuter KU, Wei Y, Pittelkow MR, Swanson NN, Gibbons NC, Wood JM (2007) Structural and functional alterations in the beta2-adrenoceptor are caused by a point mutation in patients with atopic eczema. Exp Dermatol 16: 807-13

70.  Schallreuter KU, Bahadoran P, Picardo M et al. (2008) Vitiligo pathogenesis: autoimmune disease, genetic defect, excessive reactive oxygen species, calcium imbalance, or what else? Exp Dermatol 17: 139-40; discussion 141-60

71.  Schallreuter KU, Kothari S, Chavan B, Spencer JD (2008) Regulation of melanogenesis--controversies and new concepts. Exp Dermatol 17: 395-404

72.  Schallreuter KU, Rokos H, Chavan B et al. (2008) Quinones are reduced by 6-tetrahydrobiopterin in human keratinocytes, melanocytes, and melanoma cells. Free Radic Biol Med 44: 538-46

73.  Shalbaf M, Gibbons NC, Wood JM et al. (2008) Presence of epidermal allantoin further supports oxidative stress in vitiligo. Exp Dermatol 17: 761-70

74.  Spencer JD, Gibbons NC, Böhm M, Schallreuter KU (2008) The Ca2+-binding capacity of epidermal furin is disrupted by H2O2-mediated oxidation in vitiligo. Endocrinology 149: 1638-45

75.  Wood JM, Gibbons NC, Chavan B, Schallreuter KU (2008) Computer simulation of heterogeneous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the catalase gene indicates structural changes in the enzyme active site, NADPH-binding and tetramerization domains: a genetic predisposition for an altered catalase in patients with vitiligo? Exp Dermatol 17: 366-71

76.  Schallreuter KU, Rübsam K, Gibbons NC et al. (2008) Methionine sulfoxide reductases A and B are deactivated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the epidermis of patients with vitiligo. J Invest Dermatol 128: 808-15)

77.  Wood JM, Schallreuter KU (2008) A plaidoyer for cutaneous enzymology: our view of some important unanswered questions on the contributions of selected key enzymes to epidermal homeostasis. Exp Dermatol 17: 569-578

78.  Rokos H, Wood JM, Hasse S, Schallreuter KU (2008) Identification of epidermal L-tryptophan and its oxidation products by in vivo FT-Raman Spectroscopy further supports oxidative stress in patients with vitiligo. J Raman Spectrosc 39:1214-1218

79.  Plonka PM, Passeron T, Brenner M et al. (2009) What are melanocytes really doing all day long...? Exp Dermatol 18: 799-819

80.  Chavan B, Beazley W, Wood JM, Rokos H, Ichinose H, Schallreuter KU (2009) H2O2 increases de novo synthesis of (6R)-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin via GTP cyclohydrolase I and its feedback regulatory protein in vitiligo. J Inherit Metab Dis 32: 86-94

81.  Salem MM, Shalbaf M, Gibbons NC, Chavan B, Thornton JM, Schallreuter KU (2009) Enhanced DNA binding capacity on up-regulated epidermal wild-type p53 in vitiligo by H2O2-mediated oxidation: a possible repair mechanism for DNA damage. Faseb J 23: 3790-807

82.  Schallreuter KU, Hasse S, Rokos H et al. (2009) Cholesterol regulates melanogenesis in human epidermal melanocytes and melanoma cells. Exp Dermatol 18: 680-8

83.  Spencer JD, Schallreuter KU (2009) Regulation of pigmentation in human epidermal melanocytes by functional high-affinity beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone/melanocortin-4 receptor signaling. Endocrinology 150: 1250-8

84.  Vafaee T, Rokos H, Salem MM, Schallreuter KU (2010) In vivo and in vitro evidence for epidermal H2O2-mediated oxidative stress in piebaldism. Exp Dermatol 19(10): 883-7 Epub Sep 16 2009

85.  Wood JM, Decker H, Hartmann H et al. (2009) Senile hair graying: H2O2-mediated oxidative stress affects human hair color by blunting methionine sulfoxide repair. Faseb J 23: 2065-75

86. Schallreuter KU, Salem MM (2010) Vitiligo. Was ist neu? Hautarzt Jul. 61(7): 578-85

87.  Mastrofrancesco A, Kokot A, Eberle A, Gibbons NC, Schallreuter KU, Strozyk E, Picardo M, Zouboulis CC, Luger TA, Böhm M (2010) KdPT, a tripeptide derivate of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, suppresses IL-1 beta-mediated cytokine expression and signaling in human sebocytes. J Immunol Aug. 1, 185(3): 1903-11

88. Schallreuter KU, Salem MM, Hasse S, Rokos H (2011) The redox-biochemistry of human hair pigmentation. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. Feb;24(1):51-62

89. Krüger C, Smythe JW, Spencer JD, Hasse S, Panske A, Chiuchiarelli G, Schallreuter KU (2011) Significant immediate and long term improvement in quality of life and disease coping in patients with vitiligo after group climatotherapy at the Dead Sea. Acta Derm Venereol. Mar;91(2):152-9.

90. Schallreuter KU: Vitiligo (2011); in Hertl M (ed.): Autoimmune Diseases of the Skin Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Management. Wien, Springer, pp 435-462.

91. Van Geel N, Speeckaert R, Taieb A, Picardo M, Böhm M, Gawkrodger DJ, Schallreuter K, Bennett DC, van der Veen W, Whitton M, Moretti S, Westerhof W, Ezzedine K, Gauthier Y; VETF members (2011) Koebner's phenomenon in vitiligo: European position paper. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. Jun;24(3):564-73.

92. Schallreuter KU, Panske A, Chiuchiarelli G (2011) Ineffective topical treatment of vitiligo with Cucumis melo extracts. Int J Dermatol. 2011 Mar;50(3):374-5.

93. Schallreuter KU, Salem MA, Gibbons NC, Martinez A, Slominski R, Lüdemann J, Rokos H (2012) Blunted epidermal L-tryptophan metabolism in vitiligo affects immune response and ROS scavenging by Fenton chemistry, part 1: Epidermal H2O2/ONOO(-)-mediated stress abrogates tryptophan hydroxylase and dopa decarboxylase activities, leading to low serotonin and melatonin levels. FASEB J. Jun;26(6):2457-70.

94. Schallreuter KU, Salem MA, Gibbons NC, Maitland DJ, Marsch E, Elwary SM, Healey AR (2012) Blunted epidermal L-tryptophan metabolism in vitiligo affects immune response and ROS scavenging by Fenton chemistry, part 2: Epidermal H2O2/ONOO(-)-mediated stress in vitiligo hampers indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated immune response signaling. FASEB J. Jun;26(6):2471-85.

95. Krüger C, Schallreuter KU (2012) A review of the worldwide prevalence of vitiligo in children/adolescents and adults. Int J Dermatol. Oct;51(10):1206-12.

96. Schallreuter KU, Salem MA, Holtz S, Panske A. (2013) Basic evidence for epidermal H2O2/ONOO(-)-mediated oxidation/nitration in segmental vitiligo is supported by repigmentation of skin and eyelashes after reduction of epidermal H2O2 with topical NB-UVB-activated pseudocatalase PC-KUS. FASEB J. 2013 Aug;27(8):3113-22. doi: 10.1096/fj.12-226779. Epub 2013 Apr 29. with press release

97. Krüger C, Panske A, Schallreuter KU (2013) Disease-related behavioral patterns and experiences affect quality of life in children and adolescents with vitiligo. Int J Dermatol. (Epub May 21).

98. Krüger C, Schallreuter KU (2013) Cumulative life course impairment in vitiligo. Curr Probl Dermatol. 2013;44:102-1

99. Schallreuter KU. (2013) Q10-triggered facial vitiligo. Br J Dermatol. 2013 Dec;169(6):1333-6. doi: 10.1111/bjd.12587.